Chai –  Cellar (Winery) –  More or less synonymous terms to describe the local winemaking or storage area.

Champagnization – Champagne Method (Champagne process) – Traditional method in which a wine is made sparkling by a

second fermentation. For Champagne and some sparkling wines, the second fermentation usually takes ^place in the bottle.

Chaptalization  – When sugar is added to wine before or during fermentation to increase alcohol levels.

Chaptalization is illegal in some parts of the world, and highly controlled in others. (see Must Enrichment).

Citric acid  – One of the three predominate acids in wine. This acid can also be found in other fruits.

Clairet – Light red wine, soft, fruity, fabricated in order to be consumed young.

Do not confuse with Claret, Anglo-Saxon term designating Bordeaux red.

Claret  – The name the English use when referring to red wines of Bordeaux.

Clarification  – Oenological operation leading to a wine’s limpidity by racking, filtering etc…

Class growth  see cru classe’.

Clavelin – 62cl bottle used for wines made in the Jura region of France.

The bottle contains the yellow wines of Jura (vins jaune de Jura).

Clear wine – in Champagne, wine without the famous bubbles.

Clone – Set of vines which are genetically identical because an equal footing chosen for its interesting characters:

aromatic expression, disease resistance etc..

Closed  – Term describing underdeveloped and young wines whose flavors are not exhibiting well.

Closed tank (Method) (Pressure tank process) – Method pertaining to sparkling wines that develops bubbles during a

second fermentation inside the fermenting tank or bin.

Cluster (Grape) – Several  berries forming and bunch.

CM  (Cooperative Manipulation) – Approximately 150 champagne cooperatives develop and market 25% of 200 million

bottles sold each year.

Cold Treatment  – Operation post fermentation that consist of the lowering of the temperature of a young wine

(-4°C for a few days) in order to eliminate tartaric crystals naturally present in a wine and that the consumer

doesn’t wish to find in the glass. In the past, the barrels where rolled outside to spend some time out in the

cold of winter.

Collage (Fining) – Operation of introducing a substance in wine that will takeaway unwanted particles from freshly

made wines. Usually mineral (bentonite etc..) or organic (egg white, casein etc..), this process promotes particle

sedimentation. The collageis a practice done by the Romans.

Complex  – A  wine exhibiting numerous odors, nuances, and flavors.

Cork taint  – Undesirable aromas and flavors in wine often associated with wet cardboard and/or moldy basements.

Corked  – A term that denotes a wine that has suffered cork taint (not wine with cork particles floating in it).

Cork (smell) – Mustiness provided by a cork of poor quality.

Cru Classé 1855 – A top-ranking vineyard designated in the Bordeaux Classification of 1855..

Cru (Cru) – A designated location where the soil and climatic conditions, known as the French term ‘Terroir’ or

Environment is acknowledged as strong elements that enhances the personality and identifies themselves to

certain wines.

Cru Bourgeois – Applies to certain wines of the Médoc and Haut Médoc area of the Bordeaux region.

Having been overlooked during the 1855 classification, these established Bourgeois houses and Chateaux decided to

federate their effort so as to bring recognition to the quality of their wines. This classification, the lower crus, is

determined by the “Interprofession Syndicate” and updated regularly (usually every ten years). The wines are

prioritized: Grand Crus Bourgeois Exceptional, Grand Crus, Bourgeois and Crus Bourgeois.

Crushing – Operation pre-fermentation, yet non-systematic that consist of softly breaking the skin of the grape

without breaking the seeds. This is a practice since the ancient Egyptian period (2500BC).

Cryo-extraction – This process aimed at obtaining a mash enriched with sugar by physical means.

Here there is a separation of liquid and solids separation based on the difference in temperatures between the

freezing of water to obtain a sweet solution. The must-enriched sugar is extracted during the first press where

the water is retained in a solid form.

Cuvée  – French word that means fermentation bin, vat or tank. It is a term that is often use to describe a certain

quality of wine that is either coming from a single vat or several vats that are blended to achieve a certain quality.